We risk environmental catastrophes by ignoring what we put into the oceans. 

WikiGreen aims to shine light into the depths of this ignorance.

We welcome your contributions. If you prefer to remain anonymous, your confidentiality is protected by Icelandic law.

Our panel

Our editorial panel includes shipping and coatings industry professionals, academic researchers specialising in the marine environment, and journalists.

We verify information independently before publication.

Review of biosecurity and contaminant risks associated with in-water cleaning

Published by The National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions, 2013

“The ANZECC Code describes practices that prevent the release of toxic chemicals and biofouling organisms into the marine environment. It prohibits in-water cleaning of vessels unless a permit is granted by the relevant management authority. The ANZECC Code is currently at variance with the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Antifouling Systems on Ships, ratified by Australia in 2007, because it accepts the use of tributyltin-based antifouling coatings.”

“Modern biocidal antifouling coatings u • se a wide range of primary and ‘booster’ biocides, including copper, iron, zinc, diuron, irgarol 1051 and others. There is a lack of empirical data on the effects of many biocides on marine organisms and ecosystems. However, an increasing number of studies suggest that most of the biocides used in modern antifouling coatings are highly toxic to a wide range of aquatic non-target organisms.”

“None of the brush-based or water jet systems reviewed are demonstrably able to remove 100 per cent of biofouling from targeted surfaces or to contain 100 per cent of the removed material. Many systems are unable to access and clean niche areas (hull recesses or protrusions). In addition, brush-based and water jet systems can be abrasive and damage antifouling coatings. These systems are currently associated with a high risk of releasing biocidal coating material and potentially NIS into the surrounding environment.”

“In-water cleaning should be permissible only on vessel surfaces that are coated in non-biocidal antifouling coatings or no coating at all, and where biofouling is restricted to a slime layer (primary biofouling).”

Download the report here


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *